Swanson's law is an observation that the price of solar photovoltaic modules tends to drop 20 percent for every doubling of cumulative shipped volume. At present rates, costs halve about every 10 years.
I have not yet made a decision about how to respond to James Damore's memo about diversity at Google. I am going to wait for the outrage to subside, for the various members of the Twitter mob to lay down their metaphorical pitchforks and return to their homes. I do not wish to be a participant in a modern-day Internet lynching -- and neither should you. If anything Mr. Damore has written in the memo constitutes a fireable offense (as some people have alleged), then I will, indeed take that step. However, such a drastic action does not need to take place immediately. If it is in fact justified, then delaying it a few days will cause no great harm. And this little bit of extra time will allow for hurt feelings and outrage to subside, and that will in turn allow us all to approach the issue with cooler heads and sounder judgment.
-- Imaginary Sundar Pichai
- 1.5 cups corn meal
- 0.5 cups flour
- 1 tbsp + 1 tsp baking powder (4 tsp)
- 2 tbsp sugar
- 0.75 tsp salt
- ~ 2 tbsp chopped fresh sage
- Cooking oil
- 1 stick butter
- 1 cup milk
- 1 egg
- microwave it for 3 minutes on 10% power (soften it, don't liquify it)
- to the dry ingredients and mix them thoroughly
- to the mixing bowl and mix it some more
- I wait to preheat the oven since that gives the batter more time to rise.
- I preheat the (greased!) Pyrex dish with the oven to keep the cornbread from sticking later.
- preheat it to 350 degrees
- remove the Pyrex dish
- pour/scrape the batter into the dish
- pat it down so it's basically flat
- at 350 degrees
- for 40 minutes
- Typically white flour is used as the second ingredient in cornbread, but I always use spelt, which is pretty similar to ordinary whole wheat flour.
- If you want to do a gluten-free variant, I have successfully used cornflour (more finely ground than cornmeal). My recollection is that it was somewhat crumblier than normal, but otherwise OK. I have not tried it but I suspect that rice flour would work about the same.
- I'm not sure what would happen if you just used two cups of cornmeal. I expect the result would just be really crumbly cornbread, but if you're planning to use it as a substitute for turkey stuffing, that's probably OK.
- The batch I just made came out pretty crumbly anyway.
- I just eyeballed the sage. It might have been closer to 3 tbsp, I'm not sure. You could substitute dry sage, and if you do you will need a lot less, but I don't know how much exactly.
- This should go without saying, but you can leave the sage out if you just want regular cornbread.
- You can use less butter, no butter, or substitute canola oil if you're looking for something a little more healthy.
- My batter comes out pretty thick, especially with the whole stick of butter. You can just add a little more milk if you find the thick batter to be an issue.
- Astute readers will note that since I softened the butter in the pyrex dish, I could just have used butter residue to grease the dish. Usually I don't use butter at all (certainly not a whole stick) and just use a little canola oil to grease the dish.
- As mentioned above, I wait until the batter is ready before I even start to preheat the oven. This gives the cornbread batter more time to rise, which makes a difference in my experience, but seems to be a problem that other people don't have. (Maybe my baking powder is old?)
- Also as mentioned above, I preheat the greased pyrex dish as well as the oven. This keeps the cornbread from sticking to the dish after it's done and makes it much easier to clean the dish afterwards. However, you have to remember that the dish is still hot when you're pouring the batter into it!
- If you're feeling ambitious, you could use the butter to saute garlic, chopped celery, chopped onions or other stuffing-like ingredients to add to the batter.
- No matter how hard I try, I can never cut the cornbread into equal sized pieces. This bothers me more that it should.
The chemtrail conspiracy theory is the unproven belief that long-lasting trails, so-called "chemtrails", are left in the sky by high-flying aircraft and that they consist of chemical or biological agents deliberately sprayed for sinister purposes undisclosed to the general public. 
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemtrail_conspiracy_theory
- The chemtrail conspiracy theory is the unproven belief that long-lasting trails, so-called "chemtrails", are left in the sky by high-flying aircraft and that they consist of chemical or biological agents deliberately sprayed for sinister purposes undisclosed to the general public.
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Pinatubo
- The second-largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991.
- The injection of aerosols into the stratosphere is thought to have been the largest since the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883, with a total mass of SO2 of about 17,000,000 t (19,000,000 short tons) being injected—the largest volume ever recorded by modern instruments.
- This very large stratospheric injection resulted in a reduction in the normal amount of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface by roughly 10% (see figure). This led to a decrease in northern hemisphere average temperatures of 0.5–0.6 °C (0.9–1.1 °F) and a global fall of about 0.4 °C (0.7 °F).
- The stratospheric cloud from the eruption persisted in the atmosphere for three years after the eruption.
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_engineering
- Some proposed climate engineering methods employ methods that have analogues in natural phenomena such as stratospheric sulfur aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. As such, studies about the efficacy of these methods can draw on information already available from other research, such as that following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo.
- Climate engineering, commonly referred to as geoengineering, also known as climate intervention, is the deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climatic system with the aim of limiting adverse climate change.
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_aviation
- U.S. airlines alone burned about 16.2 billion gallons of fuel during the twelve months between October 2013 and September 2014.
- According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_fuel, jet fuel ranges from 775-840 g/L.
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_oil
- Governing bodies (i.e., California, European Union) around the world have established Emission Control Areas (ECA) which limit the maximum sulfur of fuels burned in their ports to limit pollution, reducing the percentage of sulfur and other particulates from 4.5% m/m to as little as .10% as of 2015 inside an ECA. As of 2013 3.5% continued to be permitted outside an ECA, but the International Maritime Organization has planned to lower the sulfur content requirement outside the ECA's to 0,5% m/m.
-  Math
- How much sulfur dioxide could be produced by burning 16.2 billion gallons of fuel which is 3.5% sulfur by weight?
> 16.2 billion gallons
> 61.3 billion liters ; 3.78541 liters per gallon
> 47.5 billion kg ; 775 g/l or 0.775 kg/l, the lower figure for jet fuel
> 47.5 million tons ; 1000kg per metric ton
> 1.66 million tons ; tons sulfur, assuming 3.5% sulfur by weight
> 3.32 million tons ; sulfur dioxide is about 1/2 sulfur by mass (32.06 / 64.066)
- Answer: 3.32 million tons sulfur dioxide
- This number is at best an estimate. Aircraft would only burn sulfur heavy fuels at altitude, so not all fuel consumed would produce stratospheric sulfur dioxide. On the other hand, average jet fuel density is no doubt greater than 775 g/l, and sulfur concentrations of up to 4.5% have been reported for marine bunker fuel.
- Most importantly, U.S. air travel only accounts for a fraction of total air travel -- a large fraction, no doubt, but probably less than half.
> 3.32 million tons ; assume U.S. aircraft inject 3.32 million tons of sulfur dioxide
> 6.64 million tons ; assume European and Asian aircraft can inject a similar amount
> 13.3 million tons ; assume a 2 year time horizon
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming
- The global average (land and ocean) surface temperature shows a warming of 0.85 [0.65 to 1.06] °C in the period 1880 to 2012, based on multiple independently produced datasets.
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice-albedo_feedback
- Conversely, warming tends to decrease ice cover and hence the albedo, increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed, leading to more warming.
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_methane_emissions
- Arctic methane release is the release of methane from seas and soils in permafrost regions of the Arctic, due to deglaciation. While a long-term natural process, it is exacerbated by global warming. This results in a positive feedback effect, as methane is itself a powerful greenhouse gas.
It is shown that self-sinking of a spherical probe in the form of a capsule filled with radionuclides, whose decay heats and melts the rock in its path, deep into the Earth is possible. Information on the formation, structure, and shifts deep in the Earth can be obtained by recording and analyzing acoustic signals from the recrystallization of the rock by the probe.
A cryobot or Philberth-probe is a robot that can penetrate water ice. A cryobot uses heat to melt the ice, and gravity to sink downward. The difference between the cryobot and a drill is that the cryobot uses less power than a drill and doesn't pollute the environment.
A cryobot or Philberth-probe is a robot that can penetrate water ice. A cryobot uses heat to melt the ice, and gravity to sink downward.